Surkhandarya long attracted the attention of archaeologists from different countries. Especially the ancient city Termez, which is focused around a lot of ancient monuments. Just a few kilometers from the regional center, among the cotton fields and vineyards, towering walls of buildings of adobe and brick facing strictly to the cardinal. It is an ancient historical monument under the gentle and beautiful name, "Kirk-Kiz" ("Forty Girls"). Until now, archaeologists have not agreed the appointment of a building. The date of construction, archaeologists refer IX - XI centuries.
For the scientists, this building served as the country residence of the local rulers or private educational institution.
In the book of the famous Termez astronomer of Middle Ages - the nephew of Al-Hakim Termizi, Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Sogony Usturlobi ("usturlob" - the astrolabe, an astronomical instrument), a special place is given a description of the history of "Kirk-Kiz." The scientist says that the institution was closed. What is happening inside the building remained a mystery to all the surrounding residents. It was known only that lived here and worked forty girls. This is confirmed by research famous scientist S. Khmelnitsky, who deeply studied the internal architecture of the building, came to the conclusion that it was built specifically for girls. It can be assumed that the "Kirk-Kiz" was teaching and educational and scientific institution for girls (like a girls' school), who led his mentor - Ruhayda Binti Varrock, have studied algebra, astronomy and other sciences, and the Koran.
Ruhayda Binti Varrock was very educated. This is evidenced by its written medical treatise "Tabobati Zanon" ("The treatment of women") for a discussion of various diseases and their treatment. The fame of the woman's spread throughout the East. Ahmad Usturlobi with admiration gives in his book "Ilmi nujum" is an example. Having heard many good things about Ruhayda himself Arabian caliph had proposed in his letter. But, do not host any kind of violence and bloodshed, the mentor is not afraid to refuse the person under whose authority was half of the Asian continent. In his reply letter, she expressed all he thinks about the Caliph. Without unnecessary epithets Ruhayda condemned the Arab ruler, as a conqueror and an adherent of exceptional rigidity in public affairs. She compared it with wild boar, destroying everything in its path. And yourself - with the moon, carrying light to the world. By this she meant the light of knowledge. Pretty rude refusal, on the verge of humiliation, according to contemporaries, were enraged by the Caliph. He had already sent a message to yourself Ahmad Usturlobi, who lives in the citadel of Termez, which informs that would destroy "Shahri Gulgula" - "An uneasy city" (one of the many epithets of ancient Termez). What ended the story, the end has not been elucidated. We only know that after the threats of the Caliph, Ruhayda Binti Varrock, who has decided not to endanger the life of students, let them go home. Grammar school was closed. Probably, during the invasion of the Mongol invaders, it was destroyed along with the rest of the city.
And according to popular legend, once Termez was a great and noisy city, and the rules of their king, who had forty daughters. He lived this king, not knowing the trouble, but once allegedly came into the city from the far edges of the sage. He argued with the mullahs and the sultan defeated them. And then the mullahs decided to avenge the stranger. They complained to him padishah, saying, as if the wise man should defy belief, and it must be killed. The king is not figured out commanded to burn sage, and the ashes thrown into the Amu-Darya river. So they did. But the river has suffered the ashes where swam forty daughters sultan, who drank water from the Amu Darya and swallowed the ashes of the sage. All the girls became pregnant. The king was angry scary. He built a large fortress and imprisoned in it all the daughters, who in due time gave birth to forty sons. The fortress was called Kirk-Kiz, which means "forty girls". Subsequently, this fortress forty girls, Amazons, led by a beautiful woman Gulaim bravely defended here from the conquerors and emerged victorious.
The uniqueness of the citadel - in its absolute symmetry. Each arched doorway or hallway has its counterpart on the opposite side. It was a very big palace with fifty rooms, wide corridors, which led into the hall - probably living “mehmonhona”. In terms of Kirk-Kiz is a square building with brick walls 54 meters in length. On all sides the building was protected by powerful towers. The building is traversed crosswise by two aisles and divides it into four equal parts. In the middle of the building is a small patio (11.5 *11.5 m), which according to some scholars was covered with a dome, in the opinion of others was an open courtyard.
When to inspect the ruins of the fortress, could not help wonder and diversity of masonry arches, arches, domes and walls of the complex architectural design, interior design, friezes, niches, overlap ... Scientists believe without reason, Kirk-Kiz kind of museum that tells the story about the search for architects early Middle Ages, on their distinctive style and excellence.
Time has not spared open to the elements structure, has not preserved the names of architects who were able from ordinary clay to create a beautiful song of human talent. It has long been crumbling plaster on the walls, but the ceiling vaults were still traces of an elaborate painting. Despite this, even the ruins and the rest of former splendor the imagination of our contemporaries with its uniqueness and beauty of the architecture.
Now, Kirk-Kiz is a historical and archaeological sites, are under state protection. Established self-titled Charitable Fund, which are directed to the maintenance of the historic monument. Recently, the Uzbek cinematographers filmed a documentary about the Kirk-Kiz.
Used materials of the article "Here forty maidens, beautiful mind ..." from Director of Termez Archeological Museum Ismail Botirov and journalist Gulbahor Tangirova.