Madrassah, Tim and Caravan Saray of Allakuli Khan, Madrasah Hurdzhum
Madrasah of Allakuli Khan, built in 1834-1835 years, located between Tim (Covered Bazaar) and the eastern gate Palvan-Darwaza. Because of the closeness of the construction site madrassas Allakuli Khan demanded the destruction of the city wall. Southern wing of the madrasa befallen on the bench north of Market Row Palvan-Darwaza, the northern - sided with the codes of Tim Allakuli Khan.
The main facade of the madrasa Allakuli Khan comes into the yard is partially demolished madrassa Hodzhamberdy-biy. As a result of the invasion of new madrassas in the existing building, the ramp - the passage to the madrassa portal divided Mosque into two parts, for which it is popularly called madrassa "Hurdzhum", that is "valise."
Yard of the madrasa consists of 99 "hujra" (cells) in two floors, the suspended on small domes of Palvan- Darwaza Gate and partly in the axils of the vaults Tim. Large rooms of madrassa - Halls of winter mosque and "darskhanas" (classrooms) - occupy the height of two storeys. Several “hujra” on the first floor houses the local library, which was founded by Khan and provided with books of all students Khiva Madrassah. Library contained by the proceeds from the caravanserai and Tim of Allakuli Khan.
Madrasah of Allakuli Khan can be attributed to the best achievements of late medieval architecture of Khorezm. In traditional forms and compositions created by the scale and proportion to a monument to a slender, elegant and austere majolica decoration portal and the lateral wings of madrassas. In the design of the main facade dominates Khorezm majolica type in black and white and blue colors. Colors and ornamental motifs all over majolica varied. Depending on the place of artists adorned ceramics successfully picked up the scope and nature of the figure, the color saturation of the pattern. The most impressive part of the portal graceful facade, rich bright, colorful majolica.
Currently, in the part of building of madrassas of Allakuli Khan organized the Art-restaurant. Its small and cozy room you can enjoy traditional cuisine of Khorezm. Terrace restaurant, decorated in oriental style - a perfect place for a summer dinner. In the interior, the restaurant used a lot of decorative elements. Pictures, stylized household items, wooden ceiling beams - create a unique atmosphere, transmitting the spirit of the mysterious East, and in the center of the hall is the original installation of the eastern theme.
Caravanserai and Tim of Allakuli Khan
Through the hot desert sands of majestic green plains and oases of the Great Silk Road that connected nations and peoples. Camels laden with goods and mules to transport spices and porcelain, silk and medicines, carpets, and precious stones. Caravans were many days of their routes, and the main road to salvation in them there was water and rest in the caravanserai - an ancient inn of the East. These guest houses are specially designed for leisure travelers and animals, especially large ones can shelter and feed a few caravans at a time.
The word "caravan" means a group of travelers, "serai" - a house, a palace. Such parking for travelers were built along the roads between cities at intervals of 25-30 km, this is the way to pass the camels for a day. The first caravanserais in Central Asia appeared already in the IX-X centuries and eventually spread to a network of inns along the many routes connecting Europe with India and China.
In the XIX century in connection with the expansion of trade with Bukhara, Persia and Russia, Khiva needed new shopping area. Since the main bazaars were located at the Palvan-Darwaza gates, the 30-ies of XIX century, Allakuli Khan built this huge caravanserai, which had to house break a part of the wall of Ichan-Kala near the palace Tash Hawli. Caravanserai served as a hostel for the merchants and the place of wholesale trade.
Khiva caravanserai conveniently and simply laid out. It consists of a large yard and a two-story building "hujras." On the second floor living room and in the first floor of the premises were kept higher prices. The annual rent for the barn was 10, but for the living room, 5 silver rubles.
But the combination of functions in one building hotels, warehouses and shopping mall complicate its operation, and soon the caravanserai was built many-domed shopping mall - Tim. Its east and west facades are decorated in a city gate, lined with polished brick laying out curly belts at the corner towers.
Tim was the original plan. Two rows of small domes in the center, opposite the entrance to the caravanserai, a large domed hall together. The same kind of dome is constructed at the entrance to the note from the west. Construction of the dome passes Khiva builders carried out skillfully. Light in the note falls through holes in the domes and clearly indicates constructiveness of their construction.
Trade in the Tim performed in the side benches, which housed the merchants with their goods, and in the middle, under the vaulted galleries, moving procession of customers. According to eyewitnesses, one could buy not only local but also Russian and English cotton, half-silk material for the gowns, silk scarves, cotton blankets, belts, boots, Bukhara, Chinese dishes, sugar, tea and other small items. The accuracy of weights and order in the market saw an official - Rais, who had the right on the spot lashes do justice. At the gate of another official – Divan-begi, charge a fee for the importation and exportation of goods.
Tim has been closed building facade caravanserai, previously adorned the trade area, but at the same time, the new area has become more regular shape and with the establishment of the eastern entrance to the Tim like a Palvan-Darwaza gate - a clear symmetric solution. And the city, closed ring of walls with traditional four gates, got a new vital artery.