Madrassah of Muhammad Amin Khan, Kalta Minor, Madrassah Matniyaz Divan-begi
Madrassah of Muhammad Amin Khan - the biggest medieval Madrassah not only in Khiva, but throughout Central Asia. This architectural monument located in front of the Kunya Ark citadel, at the of the Ata-Darwaza gates. Two-storey madrassa built by Muhammad Amin Khan in 1851-1854 years. It consists of "darskhona" (the audience), a set of rooms, summer and winter mosques and libraries. In total there are 125 madrassahs “hujras” (cells), and studied it to 260 students.
The architecture of the madrassas building graceful and expressive. The device madrasas were selected planning and design techniques, proven age-old practice. At the same time, there were first arranged in convenient two-room hujras and balconies that overlook the side of the building facade on the second floor. Hence the distinctive feature of madrassas - open arched niches around the outer perimeter of the building. The decoration of the outside facade has given a special attraction and ornament of the city made a madrassa.
The tall, ornate portal on the background of deliberately crushed arcade wings, large, sharply rising angle of the tower, trailing long-term external facades, give the outward appearance of the building of the largest scale of madrassas in the city.
The portal is crowned with five domes madrassas and has a square courtyard, surrounded by hudjras. In the portal survived the inscription: "This is a wonderful building will stand forever in the joy of future generations". The corners of the facade are typical for Khiva turrets with openings at the top, belts of green glazed brick domes, tiled with the same brick.
Architectural and ornamental work has been performed in Uzbek national traditions. The high portal of the main facade is decorated with majolica and patterns of colored glazed bricks. The minaret ornamented belts, geometric patterns of colored bricks. The rich decor includes ornamental carving doors and ganch "pandjara" (lattice) windows.
In addition to theological school it housed the Office of the Supreme Muslim Court (Shariat Kazi).
Kalta Minor Minaret
Next to the madrasa stands turquoise hulk of Kalta Minor minaret. Madrassas with a minaret was designed as the most magnificent ensemble of Khiva. The construction of minarets and madrassas had intended to complete the design of a large urban area at the western gate of Ichan-Kala. Minaret was intended to become the largest in Central Asia, if it had been completed. Unfinished minaret, whose base diameter is 14.2 m, the plan was to have a height of 70-80 m. Diameter was also sharply decrease with height, which would make the minaret stronger. But construction stopped at a height of 26 meters, why him and strengthened the name Kalta Minor ("Short minaret").
Muhammad Amin Khan wanted a minaret in the madrasa was larger than anything previously built in Khorezm. He ordered his men to work for free for two years to build this building. At the base of an unusually short minaret, according to legend, was bricked up alive in one of the masters, who refused to carry out the will of the Khan. Ambitions of Khan broke his death in battle with the Turkmens in 1855. The minaret, which promised to be the biggest in the cities of Central Asia, remained unfinished.
But the madrassas had already been completed and it is the breadth of urban development approach really was the most significant in Khiva and other Central Asian cities.
In the era of the collapse of the feudal system in the XVIII-XIX centuries, during the last revival of building activity in the Central Asian khanates was not created by a majestic madrassahs than the madrassas Mohammed Amin Khan.
Minaret also became known thanks to its incompleteness and its unique decor. In its external decorative finishing bright blue Kalta Minor minaret is unique in Central Asia. This is the only minaret, whose surface is completely covered with colored glazed tiles.
Madrasah Matniyaz Divan-begi
East of madrassas Muhammad Amin Khan is located one-story madrassah of Matniyaz Divan-begi. It was built in 1871, by Finance Minister Mohammad Niaz (Matniyaz) Divan-begi. Madrasah is rectangular in shape, elongated from west to east. The main facade, facing the madrasa Muhammad Amin Khan, a high portal with a five-sided niche, decorated with the traditional blue, white and blue Khorezm majolica.
The side wings of its facade decorated with three arched niches and corner towers “guldasta” with tiny lights and domes. The domes are covered with green glazed tower blocks, and the base - a geometric pattern of blue, white and green bricks. Madrasah is comprised of ten “hujras” (cells), “darskhanas” (classrooms), winter and summer mosques.