In 1403, 27-year-old grandson of Amir Timur - Mohammed Sultan, who predicted in the heirs to the throne, returning from a trip to the coast of Asia Minor, suddenly dies. The remains of the deceased on the way the prince were taken to Samarkand and buried in the ensemble of structures previously constructed by him, consisting of a madrassa (the oldest madrasah in Central Asia), “khanaka” and minarets.
After burying his grandson, Timur ordered to build a mausoleum for the prince. But it works, obviously, have not been brought to fruition, since the beginning of 1405, Timur died and was buried here, although it is known that he had procured a grand mausoleum in his hometown in Shakhrisabz. But the sudden death and the complex political situation that arose after his death, led to the fact that Amir was buried in Samarkand.
The dark-green jade gravestone of the great Emir, established Ulugbek bears the following epitaph:
"This is the tomb of the great Sultan, Emir Timur gracious Khakan Gurgan, son of Amir Taragay, son of Amir Bergul, son of Amir Aylangir, son of Amir Andzhil, son of Kara Charnuyan, son of Amir Sigunchinchin, son of Amir-Irdanchi Barlas, son of Amir Kachulay, son of Tumnay Khan. This is a 9th Generation .... ".
With jade tomb associated with a number of mystical stories. According to one of them, in 1740 the Iranian king Nadir Shah brought a tombstone of the Emir, made from a single block of jade, and put it a step in front of his throne. Since then, Nadir Shah, to pursue a series of failures. His advisers persuaded to immediately return the stone to its rightful place, and this was done, but the stone on the road split into two parts.
Another mystical story is connected with the fact that when the 1941 June 21 Soviet archaeologists uncovered the tomb of Amir Timur, thus disturbing the stone for tomorrow, June 22, launched a surprise invasion of German troops in the Soviet Union and began the bloodiest war in history.
As a result of the commission of scientists, confirmed the historical information that Timur was a giant for his time (his height was 180 cm.) It also confirmed that when he was walking very lame. Confirmed as information about the violent death of Ulugbek, and participating in the Commission, the scientist Mikhail Gerasimov at the skull could restore the portraits of Timur, Shah Rukh, Miranshah, Ulugbek and Mohammed Sultan.
During the reign of Ulugbek, octagonal mausoleum finally turns into a dynastic tomb of Timurids. Mausoleum of being completed, it transferred the remains of Mir Sayyid Baraka - Timur's spiritual mentor, at the feet of which Timur and wanted to be buried. Updated decoration of the walls inside the building, set on the floor, and enclosed in delicate fence tombstones. The decoration of the mausoleum is concentrated all that was best achieved by masters in the Middle East, but revised with respect to local traditions.
In the tomb and buried two sons of Tamerlane - Miranshoh and Shohruh Mirzo (Ulugbek's father), Ulugbek himself, two young Timurid Abdullah Mirzo and Abdurahmon Mirzo. In the marble wall, on a hill is the gravestone of the Sufi Sayyid Umar. According to one version, it might be, Sheikh Sayyid Mir Kulol - Sufi, who was friends with the Timur’s father - Emir Taragai himself.
One of the plates there is an inscription: "This ... is luminous tomb final resting place of sovereign descent is delighting the gardens of paradise, flower paradise happy with an inmates - he's forgiven the Sultan, the Caliph formed to help the world and belief, the sultan-Ulugbek - let God will illuminate his grave ... His son had committed against his father's iniquity, and struck the edge of a dagger, so that he was martyred ... 10 of the month of Ramadan 853 AH, the prophetic".
Outwardly the Gur-Emir Mausoleum is a building with a dome vault. He is known for its simplicity of design and grand monumental architecture. The outer side walls lined with blue, light blue and white tiles. The dome of bright blue with deep sockets and white specks. The diameter of the dome 15 meters and a height of 12.5 meters. Large recesses give the dome an amazing expressiveness.
Inside the mausoleum of a large, high room with deep niches on the sides. At the bottom is a panel of onyx tiles, each of which is covered with exquisite paintings. Above the marble stalactite cornice panel.
The design and decoration of the arches of the main portal of the ensemble performed a master Muhammad Bini Mahmoud Isfaggani. Arch portal lined with carved bricks and colored tiles.
The walls of the mausoleum is decorated with mosaic, assembled from a light-and dark-blue glazed bricks, geometric mosaic decoration shines brightly in the sun.
This masterpiece of Central Asian architecture occupies an important place in the history of world architecture. Gur-Emir has served as a prototype for the famous monuments of the Mughal era: the mausoleum of Emperor Humayun in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by the descendants of Timur, who at one time were the ruling dynasty of North India.
In preparation of this article has benefited sites http://www.e-samarkand.narod.ru, www.samarkand-foto.ru and www.wikipedia.org