Gaukushon Ensemble (XVII)
Bukhara - the phenomenon of art of the medieval architects. In the history of Bukhara during the XVI-XVII centuries, especially the beginning of the XVI century, were tumultuous times of unstable power of first khans of Shaybanid dynasty and the capital was moved alternately from Samarkand to Bukhara. But then created original works, demonstrating that it is not impoverished, and was not extinguished the creative spirit of Bukhara architects. The city was built Mir-i Arab madrasa and Kalon Mosque, which completed the formation of the central Poi Kalon square ensemble, built on the stunning beauty of its quarterly Baland and Hodge Zainuddin Mosques, the beginning of the memorial suburban Bahauddin Naqshband ensemble.
Masters of the Bukharian architecture school in the XV-XVII centuries used in building construction and decoration, and non-labor intensive cheap but effective methods. For example, the overlap on intersecting arches, two-tone ganch decor "Kyrma" and "chaspak." In the XVII century, in colorful majolica decoration used monumental, zoomorphic images from the ancient pre-Islamic subjects, where the predominant pattern of birds and bird-serpent, flying to the sun. Most clearly distinguished features of the Bukhara school buildings in the madrassas, minarets and memorial buildings. Bukharian school, becoming a leader in Central Asia in the XV-XVII centuries, had a significant impact on the architecture of the region.
Gaukushon Ensemble (or Hodge Gaukushan) - one of the biggest architectural ensembles central part of Bukhara. Gaukushon, which means "killing the bull" - in the past, a large trade area of Bukhara, in the place where previously there was a massacre. Built on an area Gaukushon were carried out at the expense of Dzhuybarian Sheikh Khodja Saad, known by the nickname "Khoja Kalon" ("big, or the great Khoja"), which is reflected in the title, mosques, and the whole complex. The ensemble consists of madrassas and mosque with a high and wide across Minaret Hodge Kalon, second in size only Kalon minaret. Gaukushon Madrasah was built in 1570 and had a traditional Yard scheme. Trapezoidal shape of the building due to its location at the fork in the streets.
In 1598 the north of the madrasa was built mosque Masjidi dzhomi, popularly known as Khoja Kalon Mosque. The very construction of mosque Khoja Kalon buried in the ancestral cemetery Dzhuybarian sheikhs - Chor-Bakr.
Gaukushon Ensemble, along with several other downtown buildings included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.